Canadian Geographic Education
geographic engagement
among Canadians

Follow us on Twitter!

Follow us on Twitter!

Fraser River

Caring for a Great Resource

Source: Mount Robson Provincial Park in central British Columbia
Mouth: Strait of Georgia at Vancouver, British Columbia
Direction of flow: southwest
Length : 1,325 kilometres
Main Characteristic: a resource in need of rescue.

More on the Fraser River:
Fraser River:
Caring for a Great Resource

Osprey health indicates water quality

Cariboo Road:
Gold seekers open the interior of British Columbia

Enhancing Creek to Creek:
Uniting to save the Fraser River

Changing Faces:
Immigration trends in British Columbia

Fowl Territory:
Farmers profit by feeding migrating birds

Mountain Marshlands:
Rehabilitation of interior wetlands

A fine mess:
Restoration of a riparian habitat

Stream Makers:
Preparing a nursery for salmon

Tooth or Consequences:
Making good neighbours of beavers

Troubled Waters:
The struggle over salmon fishing

Waste Not:
Poultry manure is recycled into non-polluting pellets

The Fraser River is the most important natural artery of British Columbia, Canada’s fastest-growing province. Protected from industrial settlement by the barrier of Rocky Mountains, the valleys of the Fraser and its tributaries were, until just 100 years ago, rich in uncut forests and pristine spawning beds for millions of salmon.

The punching through of the railway from eastern Canada to the mouth of the Fraser River in 1885 suddenly made Vancouver an important port on the Pacific Ocean. By railway and by ship, first as a trickle and then in a flood, people arrived in British Columbia to spread through the valley of the Fraser and its mountain tributaries.

A massive power development at Churchill Falls on the Churchill River flooded Innu hunting grounds and sacred sites. Pollution poisoned the fish they depended upon. It was the death of the Natives’ sense of identity as self-sufficient survivors in a difficult land.

Residents of the river’s upland gorges and broad lower floodplain enjoy the country’s warmest climate, most vigorous economy, and the benefits of year-round hiking, biking, sailing, fishing, and rollerblading.

Because British Columbia is such a prosperous and attractive place to live, the Fraser’s health is menaced by rampant development. More than three-quarters of all economic activity in British Columbia takes place on land drained by the river and its tributaries. The economic activity includes home construction, farming, mining, logging, paper making, and fishing. Each of these industries must be managed sensitively if the quality of the ecosystem is to be maintained and, where necessary, restored.

Homes, schools, and industries encroach upon the river environment. Biologically-rich riverside wetlands are replaced by concrete retaining walls. In too many places, the Fraser’s banks are littered with trash.

At the same time, profits and jobs that depend on agriculture, tree-cutting, and mining are gaining at the expense of river life. Runoff from rainwater, once pure and clear, picks up silt and debris from forest cutting. Water from pulp mills and mines poison the river with chemicals. Runoff from farms pollutes it with manure, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides.

Rapid development of the Fraser’s natural floodplain is increasing the potential for human disaster. The basin is prone to flooding in years of rapid snowmelt in the mountains.

Excessive fishing is threatening survival of the river’s status as a great salmon river. Silt is washed from logging areas to clog gravel beds needed for salmon spawning. Survival of the Fraser River salmon has become the focal point of arguments over resource use, sustainable development, and ecological stewardship.

Because of the obvious threat to the health of the Fraser, British Columbians have become Canada’s most active river stewards. Loggers, fishers, Native peoples, students, and environmentalists do not always agree on what to do, but most acknowledge the need to restore the Fraser to its natural integrity.

Adobe PDF downloadFraser River (Adobe PDF document) Adobe PDF downloadRivers of Canada (All pages in a zipped file)


Share this page

Did you know that a 2005 National Survey determined that one-third of adult Canadians can be considered “geographically illiterate”?

Top 10 reasons to study geography…

Find out now!
“Geography is the lens for the soul of the earth. With the knowledge of geography, one can examine the earth’s past, assess the present and predict future situations. You can literally be ‘lost’ without geography!”

National Geographic Education Foundation

Donate to the Royal Canadian Geographical Society

© 2020 Canadian Geographic Education SITEMAP  |   CONTACT  |   PRIVACY POLICY  |   FRANÇAIS